# R Numbers

**R Numbers**

**R Numbers**

**Tutorial Name:** Codes With Pankaj
**Website:** www.codeswithpankaj.com

**Table of Contents**

**Table of Contents**

**Introduction to Numbers in R****Types of Numbers in R**Numeric (Floating-Point Numbers)

Integer

Complex Numbers

**Basic Arithmetic Operations****Mathematical Functions**Rounding Numbers

Trigonometric Functions

Logarithmic Functions

**Generating Sequences of Numbers****Random Number Generation****Handling Special Numbers**NA (Not Available)

NaN (Not a Number)

Inf (Infinity)

**Coercion of Numbers**

**1. Introduction to Numbers in R**

**1. Introduction to Numbers in R**

Numbers are a fundamental data type in R. R can handle various types of numbers, including integers, floating-point numbers (real numbers), and complex numbers. These numbers can be used for mathematical calculations, data analysis, and statistical modeling.

**Example:**

**2. Types of Numbers in R**

**2. Types of Numbers in R**

**2.1 Numeric (Floating-Point Numbers)**

Numeric is the default data type for numbers in R, representing real numbers with decimal points.

**Example:**

**2.2 Integer**

Integers are whole numbers without decimal points. You can explicitly define an integer by adding an `L`

suffix to the number.

**Example:**

**2.3 Complex Numbers**

Complex numbers consist of a real and an imaginary part. In R, complex numbers are represented with the format `a + bi`

, where `i`

is the imaginary unit.

**Example:**

**3. Basic Arithmetic Operations**

**3. Basic Arithmetic Operations**

R provides basic arithmetic operations for numbers, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and modulus.

**Example:**

**4. Mathematical Functions**

**4. Mathematical Functions**

R has a variety of built-in mathematical functions that allow you to perform complex calculations.

**4.1 Rounding Numbers**

`round()`

: Rounds to the nearest whole number or specified decimal place.`ceiling()`

: Rounds up to the nearest integer.`floor()`

: Rounds down to the nearest integer.

**Example:**

**4.2 Trigonometric Functions**

`sin()`

,`cos()`

,`tan()`

: Trigonometric functions in R.

**Example:**

**4.3 Logarithmic Functions**

`log()`

: Natural logarithm (base`e`

).`log10()`

: Logarithm with base 10.

**Example:**

**5. Generating Sequences of Numbers**

**5. Generating Sequences of Numbers**

You can create sequences of numbers in R using the `:`

operator or the `seq()`

function.

**Example:**

**6. Random Number Generation**

**6. Random Number Generation**

R provides functions to generate random numbers for various distributions, such as uniform and normal distributions.

`runif()`

: Generates random numbers from a uniform distribution.`rnorm()`

: Generates random numbers from a normal distribution.

**Example:**

**7. Handling Special Numbers**

**7. Handling Special Numbers**

**7.1 NA (Not Available)**

`NA`

represents missing values in R. Operations with `NA`

typically return `NA`

.

**Example:**

**7.2 NaN (Not a Number)**

`NaN`

represents undefined mathematical operations, such as dividing zero by zero.

**Example:**

**7.3 Inf (Infinity)**

`Inf`

represents positive or negative infinity in R, typically resulting from division by zero.

**Example:**

**8. Coercion of Numbers**

**8. Coercion of Numbers**

R allows you to convert between different types of numbers using coercion functions like `as.numeric()`

, `as.integer()`

, and `as.complex()`

.

**Example:**

**Conclusion**

**Conclusion**

Understanding numbers and their operations in R is essential for performing calculations and data analysis. Whether you're working with basic arithmetic, generating random numbers, or handling special values, R provides powerful tools for numerical computations.

For more tutorials and resources, visit **Codes With Pankaj** at www.codeswithpankaj.com.

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